术语表

Some of the terminology associated with learning disabilities 和 differences may be unfamiliar to you 和 your family. To help clarify them, we have listed the more common words 和 phrases you’ll see on our site.

注意力缺陷多动症

A child with this disorder has difficulty staying focused 和 paying attention; controlling behavior, 而且经常极度活跃. 虽然注意力缺陷多动症不被认为是一种学习障碍, research indicates that 30-50 percent of children with 注意力缺陷多动症 also have a specific learning disability, 和 that the two conditions can interact to make learning extremely challenging.

听觉加工障碍(APD)

也被称为中央听觉处理障碍, this is a condition that adversely affects how sound that travels unimpeded through the ear is processed or interpreted by the brain. Children with APD do not recognize subtle differences between sounds in words, even when the sounds are loud 和 clear enough to be heard. They can also find it difficult to tell where sounds are coming from, 弄清声音的顺序, 或者是为了屏蔽背景噪音.

计算障碍

This disability affects a child’s ability to underst和 numbers, 学习数学事实, 理解数学符号, 记忆和组织数字, 告诉时间, 或数.

书写困难

书写困难 affects a child’s h和写作 和 fine motor skills. 问题可能包括字迹难以辨认, 不一致的间距, 纸上的空间规划不佳, 糟糕的拼写, 创作写作困难, 同时思考和写作.

难语症

A specific learning disability that affects reading 和 related 语言-based processing skills. The severity can differ in each individual but can affect reading fluency, 解码, 阅读理解, 回忆, 写作, 拼写, 和 sometimes speech 和 can exist along with other related disorders. 难语症 is sometimes referred to as a 语言-Based Learning Disability.

运动障碍

虽然不是学习障碍, dyspraxia often exists along with dyslexia, dyscalculia, or 注意力缺陷多动症. Children with this disorder have difficulty controlling their muscles, 导致运动问题, 协调, 语言, 和语音.

授权™ 写作方法

授权™ is a systematic method for teaching academic 写作 developed by specifically for students with learning disabilities. 与授权™, students talk themselves through six steps of the 写作 process 和, 在每一步, 使用行之有效的策略来解决问题.

执行功能缺陷

虽然不是学习障碍, 执行功能问题, 在大脑的认知管理系统中发生了什么, are almost always seen in the learning profiles of children with specific learning disabilities 和 注意力缺陷多动症, 和 affect a variety of neuropsychological processes like planning, 组织, 策略, 注意并记住细节, 以及管理时间和空间.

执行能力

在AG亚博集团, we focus on the following executive skills in order to give children the tools they need to succeed both in 和 out of school: self-regulation, 组织 & 计划、时间管理、注意力/专注力、社交技能 & collaboration, flexibility, self-advocacy 和 working memory.

富有表现力的语言

孩子们的 ability to communicate their wants 和 needs encompasses verbal 和 nonverbal communication. 语言表达能力集中在面部表情上, 手势, 意向性, 词汇表, 语义, 形态, 和语法.

语言处理疾病

A child with 听觉加工障碍(APD) has difficulty attaching meaning to sound groups that form words, 句子, 和故事. A child with a 语言 Processing Disorder (LPD) has difficulty processing 语言. LPD可以影响表达性语言和/或接受性语言.

内存

有三种记忆对学习很重要. 工作记忆, 短时记忆和长时记忆 是用来处理语言和非语言信息的吗. 如果这些类型的记忆有缺陷的话, the ability to store 和 retrieve information required to carry out tasks can be impaired.

语言学习障碍

Children with non-verbal learning disabilities (NLD or NLVD) have a significant discrepancy between higher verbal skills 和 weaker motor, 视觉空间, 和社会技能. They have trouble interpreting nonverbal cues like facial expressions or body 语言, 并且可能缺乏协调能力. 

项目读®

根据projectread.org,阅读计划® curriculum is a complete research-based 语言 arts program which includes instructional materials for phonics, 阅读理解, 和写作. The curriculum honors diverse learning profiles 和 provides lessons built on direct concept teaching, 针对多种感觉的策略, 以及更高层次的思维能力.

接受语言

孩子们的 具备理解和理解语言的能力. 接受 语言 skills focus on attention, receptive 词汇表, following directions, 和理解问题.

视觉知觉和视觉运动缺陷

This disorder  affects a child’s ability to underst和 information that he or she sees, 或者画或复制. Children often miss subtle differences in shapes or printed letters; lose their place frequently; struggle with cutting, 握铅笔太紧, 或手/眼协调. This disorder is often seen in children with dysgraphia or a non-verbal learning disability.

Definitions based on information from the Learning Disabilities Association of America 和 The Pediatric Therapy Network.
http://ldaamerica.org/types-of-learning-disabilitieshttp://www.pediatrictherapynetwork.org
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